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Decoding "Likelihood of Confusion": A Guide for Trademark Applicants

May 09, 2024

When you file a trademark application, the journey from submission to registration is paved with various checks and balances, one of which involves a comprehensive search performed by examining attorneys at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). This search isn't just a formality; it's a critical step to ensure that your trademark doesn't infringe on existing trademarks and is fit for registration. Understanding this process, especially the concept of "likelihood of confusion," is crucial for any business owner looking to protect their brand.

What Do Examining Attorneys Look For?

When deciding whether or not there's a likelihood of confusion, examining attorneys consider multiple factors when reviewing a trademark application. There are several factors they consider, but the main two are:

  • The Trademark Itself: How the word or phrase of your trademark is spelled, pronounced, and its meaning, including any English translation if applicable.
  • Goods and Services: The specific description of goods or services as written in your application, including but not limited to the class under which the application is filed.

This review is thorough and aims to assess whether the proposed trademark could potentially conflict with existing ones in similar or related markets.

The "Likelihood of Confusion" Test

A common misconception among business owners is that the test for potential trademark conflicts is based solely on whether two brands can be easily distinguished by a reasonable person. However, the reality is more complex.

The "likelihood of confusion" test used by examining attorneys is a factors-based analysis. It does not solely focus on whether the trademarks are distinguishable by sight or sound. Instead, it examines whether consumers are likely to be confused about the source of the goods or services. This confusion might arise if consumers mistakenly believe that the goods or services come from the same source or are associated in some way.

A Closer Look at the Factors Influencing "Likelihood of Confusion"

When examining attorneys assess whether there's a "likelihood of confusion" between two trademarks, they don't make this decision lightly. They use a set of factors, often referred to as the DuPont factors (from a landmark trademark case), to guide their analysis. Understanding these factors can help clarify why certain trademark decisions are made. Here's a breakdown of some of the most pivotal ones:

  1. Similarity of the Marks in Appearance and Sound: This factor looks at how similar the trademarks are when spoken or viewed visually. Even slight similarities in sound or appearance can cause confusion, especially if the goods or services are closely related.

  2. Similarity of the Nature of Goods or Services: If two companies offer similar goods or services under their respective trademarks, the likelihood of confusion increases. This is because consumers may assume a common source or endorsement that doesn't exist.

  3. Similarity of Trade Channels: If two trademarks are used in the same or similar trade channels (like both being available in the same type of stores or online platforms), it’s easier for consumers to assume they are related or the same.

  4. Strength of the Senior Mark: A "strong" mark (one that is well-known or has been extensively advertised) is more likely to be protected against similar marks. If a new trademark closely resembles a strong existing trademark, confusion is more likely because the established brand already has significant recognition.

  5. Buyer Sophistication and Conditions of Purchase: The more sophisticated the buyer, typically due to the nature or cost of the goods/services, the less likely they are to be confused by similar marks. For example, purchasing expensive machinery involves more deliberation than buying a low-cost consumer good, potentially reducing confusion.

  6. Evidence of Actual Confusion: If there are documented instances where consumers were actually confused by the two marks, this strongly supports a finding of likelihood of confusion.

  7. Intent of the Applicant in Adopting the Mark: If it appears that a trademark was chosen in an attempt to derive benefit from the reputation of an existing mark, this can lead to a stronger case for confusion.

  8. Variety of Goods or Services the Mark Is Used With: If a trademark is used for a wide range of unrelated products or services, the "likelihood of confusion" may be lessened because consumers are used to seeing the mark in varied contexts.

A Real-World Example: Blue Apron vs. Green Apron

To illustrate, consider the case of the well-known food delivery service, Blue Apron, which holds a trademark registration for "BLUE APRON." When another company, operating within the same food service space, attempted to register "GREEN APRON," the application was refused. The reasoning? A likelihood of confusion.

Imagine you're a loyal customer of Blue Apron and you come across a reference to "Green Apron." You might naturally assume it's a new offering from Blue Apron, perhaps a special vegetable box or a product featuring recycled packaging. In this case, even though "blue" and "green" are clearly different colors, the similarity in the structure of the names and the nature of the services could easily lead to confusion. Interestingly, the company behind the failed "GREEN APRON" trademark application was none other than Starbucks.

Why This Matters

Understanding the breadth and depth of the likelihood of confusion test is essential for any business planning to secure a trademark. It highlights the importance of conducting a thorough search and considering all possible implications of a proposed trademark within the broader marketplace.

For business owners, grasping this concept can help set realistic expectations during the trademark application process and can guide more informed decisions when selecting a brand name that is both unique and legally defensible.

The Prevalence of "Likelihood of Confusion" in Trademark Refusals

A significant portion of trademark refusals issued by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) stems from the "likelihood of confusion" with previously registered trademarks. This is a common stumbling block for many businesses seeking to protect their brands, making it one of the most critical aspects of the trademark examination process to understand and navigate effectively.

Why "Likelihood of Confusion" Dominates Trademark Refusals

"Likelihood of confusion" is the primary reason for trademark refusals because it directly impacts consumer perception and market clarity. The main objective of trademark law is to prevent confusion among consumers about the sources of goods or services. This is not just about protecting the interests of businesses but also about safeguarding consumers from being misled about the origins or affiliations of products they purchase.

The Impact on Business Strategy

For businesses, a refusal based on "likelihood of confusion" can mean going back to the drawing board after investing significant resources in brand development and marketing. This underscores the importance of conducting thorough preliminary trademark searches and considering the results carefully. Identifying potential conflicts early on can save time, effort, and financial resources that might otherwise be wasted on a doomed application.

Practical Steps to Avoid "Likelihood of Confusion" Refusals

  1. Conduct Comprehensive Searches: Before settling on a brand name, conduct a comprehensive search that goes beyond direct matches and includes similar-sounding names, synonyms, and translations in relevant languages.

  2. Evaluate Market Presence: Understand the existing trademarks in your sector, especially those that are strong and have broad protection due to their fame or the variety of goods/services they cover.

  3. Choose Distinctive Marks: Opt for names that are unique and distinctive rather than descriptive or generic. The more distinctive the mark, the easier it is to protect and defend.

  4. Consider Legal Counsel: Engaging with a trademark attorney who can provide strategic advice tailored to the specifics of trademark law and the nuances of your industry can be invaluable.


While the trademark registration process might seem straightforward, the underlying legal considerations are complex and require a detailed understanding of how trademarks are evaluated. By demystifying these processes and educating business owners about the potential hurdles, we can better navigate the trademark landscape and protect our valuable brand assets.

By sharing this knowledge through this blog post, we aim to alleviate some of the frustrations and confusions that often accompany the trademark application process. If you're considering applying for a trademark, remember that a nuanced approach and a clear understanding of the legal framework will serve as your best guide.


Without Trademarks, You Have ZERO Rights to Your Brand!

We’re talking business names, logos, slogans . . . even podcast titles. Lots of entrepreneurs don’t protect their trademarks until it’s too late. So we made a short, free video to help you avoid the biggest, most dangerous mistakes that business owners make.

Wanna see it?